Find your best ppt segments.These ppt presentations are available for FREE download. MPHIL (PART I) Gram positives are violet, while gram negatives are red.  Bacteria can be classified into six major groups on morphological basis. 3. Cell shape: Bacteria may be shaped as cocci, bacilli or spirals. View Bacteria and Protista Lab Lecture.ppt from BIOLOGY 161 at Washtenaw Community College. Size of Bacteria: They are much smaller than eukaryotic cell. Examples; Mycobacterium, Bacillus; 2. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Read More, Published on : Mar 14, 2014 Classifies bacteria by cell wall composition, morphology, biochemical tests, differential staining, etc. 32 Pili Short protein appendages Smaller than flagella Adhere bacteria to surfaces Used in conjugation for Exchange of genetic information Aid Flotation by increasing buoyancy, 35 Shapes Are Used to Classify Bacillus: Rod shaped Coccus: Spherical (round) Vibrio: Comma shaped with flagella Spirillum: Spiral shape Spirochete: wormlike spiral shape, 37 Grouping of Bacteria Diplo- Groups of two Strepto- chains Staphylo- Grapelike clusters, 50 Archaebacteria Lack peptidoglycan in cell walls Have different lipids in their cell membrane Different types of ribosomes Very different gene sequences, 51 Archaebacteria Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments Called the Ancient bacteria, 52 Archaebacteria Subdivided into 3 groups: Methanogens Thermoacidophiles Extreme Halophiles, 53 Methanogens Live in anaerobic environments (no oxygen) Get energy by changing H2 & CO2 into methane gas Found in swamps, sewage treatment plants, digestive tracts of animals, 54 Methanogens Break down cellulose in a cow’s stomach Produce marsh (methane) gas, 55 Extreme Halophiles Live in very salty water Use salt to generate ATP (energy) Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake inhabitants, 56 Thermoacidophiles or Thermophiles Live in extremely hot environments Found in volcanic vents, hot springs, cracks on ocean floor that leak acid, 58 Characteristics 3 basic shapes (coccus, bacillus, spirilla) Most are heterotrophic (can’t make their own food) May be aerobic or anaerobic Identified by Gram staining, 59 Gram Staining Developed in 1884 by Hans Gram Bacteria treated with purple Crystal Violet & red Safranin stains Cell walls either stain purple or reddish pink, 60 Gram Positive Have thick layer of peptidoglycan (protein-sugar complex) Single lipid layer Stain purple Can be treated with antibiotics, 61 Gram Positive Bacteria Lactobacilli (makes yogurt & buttermilk) Actinomycetes (make antibiotics) Clostridium (lockjaw bacteria) Streptococcus (strep throat) Staphylococcus (staph infections), 62 Gram Negative Bacteria Thin layer of peptidoglycan in cell wall Extra thick layer of lipids Stain pink or reddish Hard to treat with antibiotics Some photosynthetic but make sulfur not oxygen Some fix nitrogen for plants, 63 Gram Negative Rhizobacteria grow in root nodules of legumes (soybeans, peanuts) Fix N2 from air into usable ammonia, 64 Gram Negative Rickettsiae are parasitic bacteria carried by ticks Cause Lyme disease & Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 65 Cyanobacteria Gram negative Photosynthetic Called blue-green bacteria Contain phycocyanin (red-blue) pigments & chlorophyll, 66 Cyanobacteria May be red, yellow, brown, black, or blue-green May grow in chains (Oscillatoria) Have Heterocysts to help fix N2 First to re-enter devastated areas Some cause Eutrophication (use up O2 when die & decompose in water), 68 Spirochetes Gram positive Flagella at each end Move in corkscrew motion Some aerobic; others anaerobic May be free living, parasitic, or symbiotic, 69 Enteric Bacteria Gram negative Can live in aerobic & anaerobic habitats Includes E. coli in intestines Salmonella – causes food poisoning, 70 Chemoautotrophs Gram negative Obtain energy from minerals like iron Found in freshwater ponds, 71 Nutrition, Respiration, and Reproduction, 72 Modes of Nutrition Saprobes – feed on dead organic matter Parasites – feed on a host cell Photoautotroph – use sunlight to make food Chemoautotroph – oxidize inorganic matter such as iron or sulfur to make food, 73 Methods of Respiration Obligate Aerobes – require O2 (tuberculosis bacteria) Obligate Anaerobes – die if O2 is present (tetanus) Facultative Anaerobes – don’t need O2, but aren’t killed by it (E. coli), 74 Bacterial Respiration Anaerobes carry on fermentation Aerobes carry on cellular respiration, 75 Reproduction Bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission Single chromosome replicates & then cell divides Rapid All new cells identical (clones), 76 Cellular organism copies it’s genetic information then splits into two identical daughter cells, 78 Reproduction Bacteria reproduce sexually by Conjugation Form a tube between 2 bacteria to exchange genetic material Held together by pili New cells NOT identical, 80 Spore Formation Form endospore whenever when habitat conditions become harsh (little food) Able to survive for long periods of time as endosperm Difficult to destroy (heat resistant), 81 Transduction & Transformation Genetically change bacteria May become antibiotic resistant Transformed bacteria pick up pieces of DNA from dead bacterial cells Transduction – viruses carry foreign DNA to bacteria; used to make insulin, 83 Pathogens Called germs or microbes Cause disease May produce poisons or toxins Endotoxins released after bacteria die (E. coli) Exotoxins released by Gram + bacteria (C. tetani).  Bacteria can be classified according to morphological characteristics like their cell shape, size and structure and their specific arrangement like motility and flagellar arrangement. bacteria. 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