In Kachru's three-circles model, the "outer circle" countries are countries such as the Philippines, Jamaica, India, Pakistan, Malaysia and Nigeria with a much smaller proportion of native speakers of English but much use of English as a second language for education, government, or domestic business, and its routine use for school instruction and official interactions with the government. NATO, laser). Having been the centre of Danish occupation during the Viking Invasions, Northern English dialects, particularly the Yorkshire dialect, retain Norse features not found in other English varieties.  New Zealand English uses front vowels that are often even higher than in Australian English. ), which may require do-support (Do you like her?, Where did he go?). There are many more vowel phonemes in English than there are single vowel letters (a, e, i, o, u, w, y). An element of Norse influence that persists in all English varieties today is the group of pronouns beginning with th- (they, them, their) which replaced the Anglo-Saxon pronouns with h- (hie, him, hera)..  Linguist Anthony Lacoudre estimated that over 40,000 English words are of French origin and may be understood without orthographical change by French speakers. The consonant inventory shown below is valid for California English, and for RP. The Great Vowel Shift can be seen in the dramatic developments from c. 1400 to 1600. English has what might be called a prehistory as well.  The English language will almost certainly continue to evolve over time.  Words of Old Norse origin have entered the English language primarily from the contact between Old Norse and Old English during colonisation of eastern and northern England. Þis boc is ymad vor lewede men It included the runic letters wynn ⟨ƿ⟩ and thorn ⟨þ⟩, and the modified Latin letters eth ⟨ð⟩, and ash ⟨æ⟩. Some conservative varieties like Scottish English have a voiceless [ʍ] sound in whine that contrasts with the voiced [w] in wine, but most other dialects pronounce both words with voiced [w], a dialect feature called wine–whine merger. He said though that the land was very long from there, but it is all wasteland, except that in a few places here and there Finns [i.e.  As most early presses came from continental Europe, a few native English letters such as þ and ð died out; for some time þe was written as ye. Their language, now called Old English, originated as a group of Anglo-Frisian dialects which were spoken, at least by the settlers, in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages, displacing the Celtic languages (and, possibly, British Latin) that had previously been dominant. For details, see phonological history of English as well as the articles on Old English phonology and Middle English phonology/. , The standard Singaporean accent used to be officially Received Pronunciation (RP), prevalent during news broadcasts and in radio. , Several varieties of English are also spoken in the Caribbean islands that were colonial possessions of Britain, including Jamaica, and the Leeward and Windward Islands and Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, the Cayman Islands, and Belize.  It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, England. In clauses with auxiliary verbs, they are the finite verbs and the main verb is treated as a subordinate clause. That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed, As a result, the language acquired self-conscious terms such as "accent" and "dialect". Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English.. But the Terfinn’s land was all waste except where hunters encamped, or fishers or fowlers. A contracted form of not -n't can be used as an enclitic attaching to auxiliary verbs and to the copula verb to be. Since erst he lay The only verb past participle is been and its gerund-participle is being. The Germanic settlers in the British Isles initially spoke a number of different dialects, which would develop into a language that came to be called Anglo-Saxon, or now more commonly Old English. Later changes in pronunciation, however, combined with the adoption of various foreign spellings, mean that the spelling of modern English words appears highly irregular. , In modern English, the loss of grammatical case is almost complete (it is now only found in pronouns, such as he and him, she and her, who and whom), and SVO word order is mostly fixed. AAVE is commonly stigmatised in North America as a form of "broken" or "uneducated" English, as are white Southern accents, but linguists today recognise both as fully developed varieties of English with their own norms shared by a large speech community. , Possession can be expressed either by the possessive enclitic -s (also traditionally called a genitive suffix), or by the preposition of. Þā fōr hē þā giet norþryhte swā feor swā hē meahte on þǣm ōþrum þrīm dagum gesiglau. Historically the -s possessive has been used for animate nouns, whereas the of possessive has been reserved for inanimate nouns. Through all types of printed and electronic media of these countries, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law. The Norman language in England eventually developed into Anglo-Norman. , Passive constructions also use auxiliary verbs.  Singapore English acts as the "bridge" among different ethnic groups in Singapore, and in addition to being one of the four official languages in the country, it is considered de facto as the main language of communication.  For example, he has to go where only the auxiliary verb have is inflected for time and the main verb to go is in the infinitive, or in a complement clause such as I saw him leave, where the main verb is to see which is in a preterite form, and leave is in the infinitive. A clause is built around a verb and includes its constituents, such as any NPs and PPs. The Bjarmians have cultivated their land very well, but they did not dare go in there. , Old English is essentially a distinct language from Modern English and is virtually impossible for 21st-century unstudied English-speakers to understand. Fortis obstruents, such as /p tʃ s/ are pronounced with more muscular tension and breath force than lenis consonants, such as /b dʒ z/, and are always voiceless. Some scholars have argued that English can be considered a mixed language or a creole—a theory called the Middle English creole hypothesis. Of which vertu engendred is the flour; In the Old English period, a number of umlaut processes affected vowels in complex ways, and unstressed vowels were gradually eroded, eventually leading to a loss of grammatical case and grammatical gender in the Early Middle English period. These situations have prompted proposals for spelling reform in English. bay and boat pronounced [bʲeː] and [bʷoːt]).  Some dialects do not contrast /ɪ/ and /ə/ in unstressed positions, so that rabbit and abbot rhyme and Lenin and Lennon are homophonous, a dialect feature called weak vowel merger. The historical aspect of English really encompasses more than the three stages of development just under consideration. Old English developed from a set of West Germanic dialects, often grouped as Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic, and originally spoken along the coasts of Frisia, Lower Saxony and southern Jutland by Germanic peoples known to the historical record as the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.  For example, the view of the English language among many Indians has gone from associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic progress, and English continues to be an official language of India. The most prominent varieties are Jamaican English and Jamaican Creole. ; pre-cluster shortening, which resulted in the vowel alternations in child vs. children, keep vs. kept, meet vs. met; and trisyllabic laxing, which is responsible for alternations such as grateful vs. gratitude, divine vs. divinity, sole vs. solitary. Most people learn English for practical rather than ideological reasons.  In the 20th century the growing economic and cultural influence of the United States and its status as a superpower following the Second World War has, along with worldwide broadcasting in English by the BBC and other broadcasters, caused the language to spread across the planet much faster. Today, about 9 percent of the South African population speaks South African English (SAE) as a first language. English literature began to reappear after 1200, when a changing political climate and the decline in Anglo-Norman made it more respectable. The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. , Those countries have millions of native speakers of dialect continua ranging from an English-based creole to a more standard version of English. They consisted of dialects from the Ingvaeonic grouping, spoken mainly around the North Sea coast, in regions that lie within modern Denmark, north-west Germany and the Netherlands. For ȝ, see Yogh. Like Scottish and most North American accents, almost all Irish accents preserve the rhoticity which has been lost in the dialects influenced by RP. Because of the strict SVO syntax, the topic of a sentence generally has to be the grammatical subject of the sentence. Child as he was, he was desperate with hunger and reckless with misery.  In most American and Canadian English dialects, rhoticity (or r-fulness) is dominant, with non-rhoticity (r-dropping) becoming associated with lower prestige and social class especially after World War II; this contrasts with the situation in England, where non-rhoticity has become the standard. This could be a beneficial way to figure out the language te Messiah spoke.  In the countries of the EU, English is the most widely spoken foreign language in nineteen of the twenty-five member states where it is not an official language (that is, the countries other than Ireland and Malta).  The inner-circle countries provide the base from which English spreads to other countries in the world.  That pervasive use of English leads to a conclusion in many places that English is an especially suitable language for expressing new ideas or describing new technologies. This occurred after the spelling system was fixed, and accounts for the drastic differences in pronunciation between "short" mat, met, bit, cot vs. "long" mate, mete/meet, bite, coat. It began as a Germanic dialect and went on to adopt many words from other languages (nearly half the vocabulary in English is said to come from French and Latin). While few scholars agree with Chomsky and Halle (1968) that conventional English orthography is "near-optimal", there is a rationale for current English spelling patterns. The languages spoken by the Germanic peoples who initially settled in Britain were part of the West Germanic branch of the Germanic language family. The spread of RP (also known as BBC English) through the media has caused many traditional dialects of rural England to recede, as youths adopt the traits of the prestige variety instead of traits from local dialects. English language learners listen to West Morgan High EL teacher Betsy Cossentine as EL aide Cameron Stephens assists students with their work. The Anglo-Saxons settled in the British Isles from the mid-5th century and came to dominate the bulk of southern Great Britain. By the 12th century Middle English was fully developed, integrating both Norse and French features; it continued to be spoken until the transition to early Modern English around 1500. Anglo-Norman remained in use in limited circles somewhat longer, but it had ceased to be a living language. Scots itself has a number of regional dialects. Modern English does not allow the addition of the negating adverb not to an ordinary finite lexical verb, as in *I know not—it can only be added to an auxiliary (or copular) verb, hence if there is no other auxiliary present when negation is required, the auxiliary do is used, to produce a form like I do not (don't) know. Because lenis consonants are frequently voiceless at the end of a syllable, vowel length is an important cue as to whether the following consonant is lenis or fortis. , English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares innovations with other Germanic languages such as Dutch, German, and Swedish. The Anglian dialects had a greater influence on Middle English. The next period in the history of English was Early Modern English (1500–1700). English does not belong to just one country, and it does not belong solely to descendants of English settlers. When they obtained political independence, some of the newly independent nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as the official language to avoid the political and other difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others. Syllable onset and coda (start and end) are optional. English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon migrants from what is now northwest Germany, southern Denmark and the Netherlands. Stress is also used to distinguish between words and phrases, so that a compound word receives a single stress unit, but the corresponding phrase has two: e.g. The pronunciation of particular areas distinguishes dialects as separate regional accents. Possessive pronouns exist in dependent and independent forms; the dependent form functions as a determiner specifying a noun (as in my chair), while the independent form can stand alone as if it were a noun (e.g. Many place-names in those areas are of Scandinavian provenance (those ending in -by, for example); it is believed that the settlers often established new communities in places that had not previously been developed by the Anglo-Saxons. Late 9th century —King Alfred of Wessex (Alfred the Great) leads the Anglo-Saxons to victory over the Vikings, translates Latin works into English and establishes the writing of prose in English. With the development of computer and online environments (such as chat rooms, social media expressions, and apps), and the adoption of English as a worldwide lingua franca across cultures, customs, and traditions, it should not be surprising to see further shortening of words, phrases, and/or sentences. , Since 1788, English has been spoken in Oceania, and Australian English has developed as a first language of the vast majority of the inhabitants of the Australian continent, its standard accent being General Australian. Sami] encamp, hunting in winter and in summer fishing by the sea.  There is also variability within RP, particularly along class lines between Upper and Middle-class RP speakers and between native RP speakers and speakers who adopt RP later in life. But he knew that he waited there for west winds (and somewhat north), and sailed east by the land so as he might sail in four days. Hath in the Ram his half cours yronne, Despite this large arsenal, we continue to coin, clip, and blend new words into existence. English is a common language in many specialised areas such as science, technology and the Internet, and as these areas grow so does the vocabulary needed to express new ideas and objects.  Use of English is growing country-by-country internally and for international communication. The Scandinavians, or Norsemen, spoke dialects of a North Germanic language known as Old Norse. English distinguishes at least seven major word classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, determiners (including articles), prepositions, and conjunctions.  The grammar of Old English was much more inflected than modern English, combined with freer word order, and was grammatically quite similar in some respects to modern German.  David Crystal claimed in 2004 that, combining native and non-native speakers, India now has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world, but the number of English speakers in India is very uncertain, with most scholars concluding that the United States still has more speakers of English than India.. English is not mutually intelligible with any continental Germanic language, differing in vocabulary, syntax, and phonology, although some of these, such as Dutch or Frisian, do show strong affinities with English, especially with its earlier stages. It has since evolved considerably. English is the largest language by number of speakers, and the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish. Prepositional phrases (PP) are phrases composed of a preposition and one or more nouns, e.g.  In spite of the idiomatic meaning, some grammarians, including Huddleston & Pullum (2002:274), do not consider this type of construction to form a syntactic constituent and hence refrain from using the term "phrasal verb". Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. The gruel disappeared, the boys whispered each other and winked at Oliver, while his next neighbours nudged him. , The consequence of this complex orthographic history is that learning to read can be challenging in English. In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.. There are exceptions to these generalisations, often the result of loanwords being spelled according to the spelling patterns of their languages of origin or residues of proposals by scholars in the early period of Modern English to follow the spelling patterns of Latin for English words of Germanic origin. , All sonorants (liquids /l, r/ and nasals /m, n, ŋ/) devoice when following a voiceless obstruent, and they are syllabic when following a consonant at the end of a word. English has its roots in the languages of the Germanic peoples of northern Europe. Even after the decline of Norman, standard French retained the status of a formal or prestige language, and about 10,000 French (and Norman) loan words entered Middle English, particularly terms associated with government, church, law, the military, fashion, and food (see English language word origins and List of English words of French origin). Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote The two different roots co-existed for some time, although currently the only common remnant is the shortened form 'em. 'Huo ase god' in his name yzed, Later texts from the Middle English era, now based on an eastern Midland rather than a Wessex standard, reflect the significant impact that Norse had on the language. The borrowing of words of this type was stimulated by Scandinavian rule in the Danelaw and during the later reign of Cnut. Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, In cases where the topic is not the grammatical subject of the sentence, frequently the topic is promoted to subject position through syntactic means. For example, in the question What did you see?, the word what appears as the first constituent despite being the grammatical object of the sentence. Jamaican English differs from RP in its vowel inventory, which has a distinction between long and short vowels rather than tense and lax vowels as in Standard English.  In the Wycliffe Bible of the 1380s, the verse Matthew 8:20 was written: Here the plural suffix -n on the verb have is still retained, but none of the case endings on the nouns are present. However, during this time of turmoil, the English language became more important, as it was the only language of the lower classes. changing the vowel of the stem, as in the pairs speak/spoke and foot/feet) and weak stems inflected through affixation (such as love/loved, hand/hands). The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Although some grammarians continue to use the traditional terms "accusative" and "dative", these are functions rather than morphological cases in Modern English. , As a historical legacy, Indian English tends to take RP as its ideal, and how well this ideal is realised in an individual's speech reflects class distinctions among Indian English speakers. The consonants that may appear together in onsets or codas are restricted, as is the order in which they may appear. Delight thee more, and Siloa's Brook that flow'd It is alone among non-rhotic varieties in lacking intrusive r. There are different L2 varieties that differ based on the native language of the speakers. It is generally stated that English has around 170,000 words, or 220,000 if obsolete words are counted; this estimate is based on the last full edition of the Oxford English Dictionary from 1989.  Auxiliary verbs such as have and be are paired with verbs in the infinitive, past, or progressive forms.  That is possibly confirmed by observations that simplification of the case endings occurred earliest in the north and latest in the southwest.  Although it is controversially regarded as "low prestige" especially by the government, most Singaporeans view Singlish as a unique Singaporean identity and continues to be used in informal communication among Singaporeans, and for new citizens, immigrants or tourists to learn more about Singaporean culture. Latin and Greek words and phrases became more commonplace. The following table shows the principal developments in the stressed vowels, from Old English through Modern English (C indicates any consonant): The following chart shows the primary developments of English vowels in the last 600 years, in more detail, since Late Middle English of Chaucer's time. The spread of Cockney features across the south-east led the media to talk of Estuary English as a new dialect, but the notion was criticised by many linguists on the grounds that London had been influencing neighbouring regions throughout history. Global variation among different English dialects and accents remains significant today. The phrasal verb frequently has a highly idiomatic meaning that is more specialised and restricted than what can be simply extrapolated from the combination of verb and preposition complement (e.g. In all, English borrowed about 2000 words from Old Norse, several hundred surviving in Modern English. Today this distinction is less clear, and many speakers use -s also with inanimates. It is also considered to have stimulated and accelerated the morphological simplification found in Middle English, such as the loss of grammatical gender and explicitly marked case (except in pronouns). To whose house did you go last night?. Rose out of Chaos: Or if Sion Hill The subordinating conjunction that shows that the clause that follows is a subordinate clause, but it is often omitted. English pronouns conserve many traits of case and gender inflection.  Nonetheless, there is an advantage for learners of English reading in learning the specific sound-symbol regularities that occur in the standard English spellings of commonly used words. Another way is through a cleft sentence where the main clause is demoted to be a complement clause of a copula sentence with a dummy subject such as it or there, e.g. A deictic pronoun points to some person or object by identifying it relative to the speech situation—for example, the pronoun I identifies the speaker, and the pronoun you, the addressee. Today, the use of English is ubiquitous in the Philippines, from street signs and marquees, government documents and forms, courtrooms, the media and entertainment industries, the business sector, and other aspects of daily life. As there are many words from different languages and English spelling is variable, the risk of mispronunciation is high, but remnants of the older forms remain in a few regional dialects, most notably in the West Country. Middle English is the form of English spoken roughly from the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 until the end of the 15th century. Sometimes Indian English speakers may also use spelling based pronunciations where the silent ⟨h⟩ found in words such as ghost is pronounced as an Indian voiced aspirated stop [ɡʱ]. Then he sailed from there south by the land so as he might sail in five days. ", "L'incroyable histoire des mots français dans la langue anglaise", "The Roles of Singapore Standard English and Singlish", "What are some commonly misspelled English words? from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore,  The majority of immigrants to the United States without British ancestry rapidly adopted English after arrival.  The copula verb to be is the only verb to retain some of its original conjugation, and takes different inflectional forms depending on the subject. , In the table, when obstruents (stops, affricates, and fricatives) appear in pairs, such as /p b/, /tʃ dʒ/, and /s z/, the first is fortis (strong) and the second is lenis (weak).  These shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor called Proto-Germanic. Now the majority of the United States population are monolingual English speakers, and English has been given official or co-official status by 30 of the 50 state governments, as well as all five territorial governments of the US, though there has never been an official language at the federal level.  Making primary school teachers more aware of the primacy of morpheme representation in English may help learners learn more efficiently to read and write English. Until the 14th century, Anglo-Norman and then French were the language of the courts and government. There is one count that puts the English vocabulary at about 1 million words—but that count presumably includes words such as Latin species names, scientific terminology, botanical terms, prefixed and suffixed words, jargon, foreign words of extremely limited English use, and technical acronyms. In the 1611 King James Version of the Bible, written in Early Modern English, Matthew 8:20 says: This exemplifies the loss of case and its effects on sentence structure (replacement with subject–verb–object word order, and the use of of instead of the non-possessive genitive), and the introduction of loanwords from French (ayre) and word replacements (bird originally meaning "nestling" had replaced OE fugol). English is spoken by over one billion people as a first or second language. the anglo saxons were black hebrew israelites who were living in europe during the dark ages anglo saxons mean angelic sons of isaac The "inner circle" countries with many native speakers of English share an international standard of written English and jointly influence speech norms for English around the world. who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate, Discourse markers are often the first constituents in sentences. , Like Icelandic and Faroese, the development of English in the British Isles isolated it from the continental Germanic languages and influences. Modern English syntax language is moderately analytic. The translation of Matthew 8:20 from 1000 shows examples of case endings (nominative plural, accusative plural, genitive singular) and a verb ending (present plural): From the 8th to the 12th century, Old English gradually transformed through language contact into Middle English. The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into the two extremely general categories of British English (BrE) and North American English (NAE). It originated in England and is the dominant language of the U.S., the U.K., Canada, Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand.  Singaporean accents can also be said to be largely non-rhotic. The most important umlaut process was *i-mutation (c. 500 CE), which led to pervasive alternations of all sorts, many of which survive in the modern language: e.g.  English continues to gain new loanwords and calques ("loan translations") from languages all over the world, and words from languages other than the ancestral Anglo-Saxon language make up about 60% of the vocabulary of English.  Now, do-support with the verb have is becoming increasingly standardised.)  Noun phrases can be short, such as the man, composed only of a determiner and a noun. Finite verbal clauses are those that are formed around a verb in the present or preterit form.  While grammarians such as Henry Sweet and Otto Jespersen noted that the English cases did not correspond to the traditional Latin-based system, some contemporary grammars, for example Huddleston & Pullum (2002), retain traditional labels for the cases, calling them nominative and accusative cases respectively. Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast International communities such as international business people may use English as an auxiliary language, with an emphasis on vocabulary suitable for their domain of interest. (See object pronoun.) (See § Dialects, accents, and varieties, below. A syllable can start with up to three consonant sounds, as in sprint /sprɪnt/, and end with up to four, as in texts /teksts/. 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